Saturday, December 10, 2011

A turbo/ram jet engine.

Fig. 1-10 Comparative propulsive efficiencies
16. At aircraft speeds below approximately 450 miles per hour, the pure jet engine is less efficient than a propeller-type engine, since its propulsive efficiency depends largely on its forward speed; the pure turbo-jet engine is, therefore, most suitable for high forward speeds. The propeller efficiency does, however, decrease rapidly above 350 miles per hour due to the disturbance of the airflow caused by the high blade-tip speeds of the propeller. These characteristics have led to some departure from the use of pure turbo-jet propulsion where aircraft operate at medium speeds by the introduction of a combination of propeller and gas turbine engine.
17. The advantages of the propeller/turbine combination have to some extent been offset by the introduction of the by-pass, ducted fan and propfan engines. These engines deal with larger comparative airflows and lower jet velocities than the pure jet engine, thus giving a propulsive efficiency (Part 21) which is comparable to that of the turbo-prop and exceeds that of the pure jet engine (fig. 1-10).

Fig. 1-11 A turbo/ram jet engine.
18. The turbo/ram jet engine (fig. 1-11) combines
the turbo-jet engine (which is used for speeds up to Mach 3) with the ram jet engine, which has good performance at high Mach numbers.
19. The engine is surrounded by a duct that has a
variable intake at the front and an afterburning jet
pipe with a variable nozzle at the rear. During takeoff and acceleration, the engine functions as a conventional turbo-jet with the afterburner lit; at other flight conditions up to Mach 3, the afterburner is inoperative. As the aircraft accelerates through Mach 3, the turbo-jet is shut down and the intake air is diverted from the compressor, by guide vanes, and ducted straight into the afterburning jet pipe, which becomes a ram jet combustion chamber. This engine is suitable for an aircraft requiring high speed and sustained high Mach number cruise conditions where the engine operates in the ram jet mode.

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