Saturday, January 7, 2012


Fig. 5-6 A typical turbine blade showing
twisted contour.
6. From the description contained in para. 1, it will be seen that the turbine depends for its operation on the transfer of energy between the combustion gases and the turbine. This transfer is never 100 per cent because of thermodynamic and mechanicallosses, (para. 11). 

Fig. 5-7 Gas flow pattern through nozzle and blade
  7.when the gas is expanded by the combustion process (Part 4), it forces its way into the discharge nozzles of the turbine where, because of theirconvergent shape, it is accelerated to about the speed of sound which, at the gas temperature, isabout 2,500 feet per second. At the same time thgas flow is given a ’spin’ or ’whirl’ in the direction o rotation of the turbine blades by the nozzle guid vanes. On impact with the blades and during th subsequent reaction through the blades, energy is absorbed, causing the turbine to rotate at high speed and so provide the power for driving the turbine shaft and compressor.

8. The torque or turning power applied to the turbine is governed by the rate of gas flow and th energy change of the gas between the inlet and th outlet of the turbine blades, The design of the turbine is such that the whirl will be removed from the gastream so that the flow at exit from the turbine will be substantially ’straightened out’ to give an axial flo into the exhaust system (Part 6). Excessive residual whirl reduces the efficiency of the exhaust system and also tends to produce jet pipe vibration which has a detrimental effect on the exhaust cone supports and struts.
9. It will be seen that the nozzle guide vanes and blades of the turbine are ’twisted’, the blades having a stagger angle that is greater at the tip than at the root (fig. 5-6). The reason for the twist is to make the gas flow from the combustion system do equal work at all positions along the length of the blade and to ensure that the flow enters the exhaust system with a uniform axial velocity. This results in certain changes in velocity, pressure and temperature occurring through the turbine, as shown diagrammatically in fig. 5-7.
10. The ’degree of reaction’ varies from root to tip, being least at the root and highest at the tip, with the mean section having the chosen value of about 50 per cent. 11. The losses which prevent the turbine from being 100 per cent efficient are due to a number of reasons. A typical uncooled three-stage turbine would suffer a 3.5 per cent loss because of aerodynamic losses in the turbine blades. A further 4.5 per cent loss would be incurred by aerodynamic losses in the nozzle guide vanes, gas leakage over the turbine blade tips and exhaust system losses; these losses are of approximately equal proportions. The total losses result in an overall efficiency of approximately 92 per cent.
12. The basic components of the turbine are the combustion discharge nozzles, the nozzle guide vanes, the turbine discs and the turbine blades. The rotating assembly is carried on bearings mounted in the turbine casing and the turbine shaft may be common to the compressor shaft or connected to it by a self-aligning coupling.

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