|Fig. 19-6 Noise absorbing materials and location.|
13. Deep corrugations, lobes, or multi-tubes, give the largest noise reductions, but the performance penalties incurred limit the depth of the corrugations or lobes and the number of tubes. For instance, to achieve the required nozzle area, the overall diameter of the suppressor may have to be increased by so much that excessive drag and weight results. A compromise which gives a noticeable reduction in noise level with the least sacrifice of engine thrust, fuel consumption or addition of weight is therefore the designer's aim.
14. The high by-pass engine has two exhaust streams to eject to atmosphere. However, the principle of jet exhaust noise reduction is the same as for the pure or low by-pass engine, i.e. minimize the exhaust jet velocity within overall performance objectives. High by-pass engines inherently have a lower exhaust jet velocity than any other type of gas turbine, thus leading to a quieter engine, but further noise reduction is often desirable. The most successful method used on by-pass engines is to mix the hot and cold exhaust streams within the confines of the engine (fig. 19-5) and expel the lower velocity exhaust gas flow through a single nozzle (Part 6).
15. In the high by-pass ratio engine the predominant sources governing the overall noise level are the fan and turbine. Research has produced a good understanding of the mechanisms of noise generation and comprehensive noise design rules exist. As previously indicated, these are founded on the need to minimize turbulence levels in the airflow, reduce the strength of interactions between rotating blades and stationary vanes, and the optimum use of acoustically absorbent linings.
16. Noise absorbing 'lining' material converts acoustic energy into heat. The absorbent linings (fig. 19-6) normally consist of a porous skin supported by a honeycomb backing, to provide the required separation between the facesheet and the solid engine duct. The acoustic properties of the skin and the liner depth are carefully matched to the character of the noise, for optimum suppression. The disad- vantage of liners is the slight increase in weight and skin friction and hence a slight increase in fuel consumption. They do however, provide a very powerful suppression technique.
Noise suppression Noise absorbing materials and location METHODS OF SUPPRESSING NOISE 1,Introduction Noise suppression, Noise suppression Engine noise, Noise suppression Methods of suppressing noise, Noise suppression Construction and materials,