|Fig. 10-7 A proportional flow control system.|
23. H.P. compressor shaft r.p.m. is governed by a hydro-mechanical governor which uses hydraulic pressure proportional to engine speed as its controlling parameter. A rotating spill valve senses the engine speed and the controlling pressure is used to limit the pump stroke and so prevent over-speeding of the H.P. shaft rotating assembly. The controlling pressure is unaffected by changes in fuelspecific gravity.
24. At low H.P. shaft speeds, the rotating spill valve is held open, but as engine speed increases, centrifugal loading moves the valve towards the closed position against the diaphragm loads. This restricts the bleed of fuel to the L.P. side of the valve until, at governed speed, the governor pressure deflects the servo control diaphragm and opens the servo spill valve to control the fuel flow and thereby the H.P. shaft speed.
25. If the engine gas temperature attempts to exceed the maximum limitation, the current in the L.P. speed limiter and temperature control solenoid is reduced. This opens the spill valve to reduce the pressure on the pressure drop control diaphragm. The flow control spill valve then opens to reduce the pump servo pressure and fuel pump output.
26. To prevent the L.P. compressor from over-speeding, multi-spool engines usually have an L.P. compressor shaft speed governor. A signal of L.P. shaft speed and intake temperature is fed to an amplifier and solenoid valve, the valve limiting the fuel flow in the same way as the gas temperature control (para. 25).
27. The system described uses main and starting spray nozzles under the control of an H.P. shut-off valve. Two starting nozzles are fitted in the combustion chamber, each being forward of an igniter plug. When the engine has started, the fuel flow to these nozzles is cut off by the H.P. shut-off valve.
28. To ensure that a satisfactory fuel pressure to the spray nozzles is maintained at high altitudes, a back pressure valve, located downstream of the throttle valve, raises the pressure levels sufficiently to ensure satisfactory operation of the fuel